Social Business

What is a Social Business/Enterprise/Entrepreneurship?

  • Most entrepreneurs are singularly motivated by making a profit. A social entrepreneur is driven more by passion to solve a social problem, and only uses business as a mechanism to solve the problem.
  • Social enterprises are characterized by their "triple bottom line" - utilizing business practices that lead to social, environmental, and economic profitability


Frameworks of Social Businesses

  1. Cross-compensation - one group pays for services and the profits from this group is used to subsidize service for another, underserved group.
  2. Fee For Service - beneficiaries pay directly for the good or service provide by the social enterprise
  3. Employment & Skills Training - core purpose is to provide living wages, skills development, and job training to the beneficiaries: the employees.
  4. Market Intermediary - social enterprise also acts as an intermediary, or distributor, to an expanded market. Beneficiaries are the suppliers of the product and/or service being distributed to an international market.
  5. Market Connector - facilitates relationships between beneficiaries and new markets.
  6. Independent Support - delivers a product or service to an external market that is separate from the beneficiary and social impact generated.
  7. Cooperative - a for profit or non profit business that is owned by its members who also use its services, providing all types of goods and services. 



Bibliography of Social Business Resources

Books - Click on Underlined Links to visit Amazon for purchase. 
  • Balkan, Joel. The Corporation: The Pathological Pursuit of Profit and Power.. New York: Free Press, 2004.
  • Baumol, William J. The Free-Market Innovation Machine: Analyzing the Growth Miracle of Capitalism. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton Press, 2004. 
  • Bell, John. YouthBuild’s North Star: A Vision of Greater Potential. Somerville, MA: YouthBuild USA, 2014. 
  • Bishop, Matthew, and Michael Green. Philanthrocapitalism: How the Rich Can Save the World. New York: Bloomsbury Press, 2008.
  • Bornstein, David. The Price of a Dream: The Story of Grameen Bank. New York: Oxford University Press, 1997.
  • Bornstein, David, and Susan Davis. Social entrepreneurship: What everyone needs to know. New York: Oxford University Press, 2010.
  • Boschee, Jerr. The Social Enterprise Sourcebook. Encore! Press, 2001. 
  • Collier, Paul. The Bottom Billion: Why the Poorest Countries Are Failing and What Can Be Done About It. New York: Oxford University Press, 2007.
  • Crutchfield, Leslie, and Heather McLeod Grant. Forces for Good. The Six Practices of High-Impact Nonprofits. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2007.
  • Duckworth, Eleanor. The Having of Wonderful Ideas: And Other Essays on Teaching and Learning. New York: Teachers College Press, 2006. 
  • Dweck, Carol. Mindset: The New Psychology of Success. New York: Ballantine Books, 2007. 
  • Ellington, John, and Pamela Hartigan. The Power of Unreasonable People: How Social Entrepreneurs Create Markets That Change the World. Boston: Harvard Business Press, 2008.
  • Farmer, Paul. Partner to the Poor: A Paul Farmer Reader. Haun Saussy,ed. Berkeley and Los Angeles, CA: University of California Press, 2010. 
  • Farmer, Paul, and Gustavo Gutierrez. In the Company of the Poor: Conversations with Dr. Paul Farmer and Fr. Gustavo Gutierrez. Michael Griffin and Jennie Weiss Block, Ed’s. New York: Orbis Books, 2013. 
  • Fayolle, Alain, and Harry Matlay, Ed’s. Handbook of Research on Social Entrepreneurship. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2012.
  • Guy, Chao, and Wolfgang Bielefeld. Social Entrepreneurship: An Evidence-Based Approach to Creating Social Value. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2014.
  • Johansson, Frans. The Medici Effect: What Elephants and Epidemics Can Teach Us About Innovation. Boston: Harvard Business School Press, 2006.
  • Klein, Maury. The Change Makers: From Carnegie to Gates, How the Great Entrepreneurs Transformed Ideas into Industries. New York: Holt, 2004.
  • Keohane, Georgia Levenson. Social Entrepreneurship for the 21st Century: Innovation Across the Nonprofit, Private, and Public Sectors. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2013.
  • Bristol, Nicholas D. And Sheryl WuDunn. Half the Sky: Turning Oppression into Opportunity for Women Worldwide. New York: Knopf, 2009. 
  • Kristof, Nicholas D., and Sheryl WuDunn. A Path Appears: Transforming Lives, Creating Opportunity. New York: Knopf, 2014.
  • Light, Paul C. Driving Social Change: How to Solve the World’s Toughest Problems. Hoboken, NY: Wiley & Sons, 2010.
  • Mair, Johanna, Jeffrey, Robinson, and Kai Hockerts, Ed’s. Social Entrepreneurship. London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2006.
  • Martin, Roger L. The Opposable Mind: How Successful Leaders Win Through Integrative Thinking. Boston: Harvard Business School Press, 2007.
  • Nicholls, Alex, ed. Social Entrepreneurship: New Models of Sustainable Social Change. New York: Oxford University Press, 2006. 
  • Praszkier, Ryszard, and Andrzej Nowak. Social Entrepreneurship: Theory and Practice. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2012.
  • Saul, Jason. Social Innovation, Inc.: 5 Strategies for Driving Business Growth Through Social Change. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2011. 
  • Schultz, Ron, ed. Creating Good Work: The World’s Leading Social Entrepreneurs Show How to Build a Healthy Economy. New York: Palgrave MacMillan, 2013. 
  • Schwartz, Beverly. Rippling: How Social Entrepreneurs Spread Innovation Throughout the World. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2012
  • Shaprio, Ruth A. Ed. The Real Problem Solvers: Social Entrepreneurs in America. Stanford, Ca: Stanford Business Books, 2013. 
  • Thompson, Laurie Ann. Be a Changemaker: How to Start Something That Matters. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2014. 
  • Thurow, Roger. The Last Hunger Season: A Year in an African Farm Community on the Brink of Change. New York: PublicAffairs, 2013. 
  • Welch, Wilford. Tactics of Hope: How Social Entrepreneurs Are Changing Our World. San Rafael: Earth Aware, 2008. 

  • Alvord, Sarah H., L. David Brown, and Christine W. Letts. "Social entrepreneurship and societal transformation: An exploratory study." The journal of applied behavioral science 40.3 (2004): 260-282.
  • Austin, James, Howard Stevenson, and Jane Wei‐Skillern. "Social and commercial entrepreneurship: same, different, or both?." Entrepreneurship theory and practice 30.1 (2006): 1-22.
  • Bloom, Paul N., and Gregory Dees. "Cultivate your ecosystem." Stanford social innovation review 6.1 (2008): 47-53. (PDF)
  • Bornstein, David. “The Rise of the Social Entrepreneur.” New York Times, November 13, 2012. 
  • Dees, J. Gregory. "The meaning of social entrepreneurship." (1998).
  • Dees, J. Gregory. "A tale of two cultures: Charity, problem solving, and the future of social entrepreneurship." Journal of business ethics 111.3 (2012): 321-334.
  • Drayton, William. "The citizen sector: Becoming as entrepreneurial and competitive as business." California management review 44.3 (2002): 120-132. (PDF)
  • Drayton, William. "Everyone a changemaker: Social entrepreneurship's ultimate goal." Innovations: Technology, Governance, Globalization 1.1 (2006): 80-96. (PDF)
  • Kania, John, and Mark Kramer. “Collective Impact” Stanford Social Innovation Review 9, no. 1 (Winter 2011): 36-41.
  • Light, Paul C. “Reshaping Social Entrepreneurship.” Stanford Social Innovation Review 4, no.3 (Fall 2006): 47-51.
  • Martin Roger L., and Sally Osberg. “Social Entrepreneurship: The Case for Definition.” Stanford Social Innovation Review 5, no. 2 (Spring 2007): 28-39.
  • McLeod, Heather. “Crossover” Inc. May 1997.
  • Mulgan, Geoff, et al. “Social Innovation: What It Is, Why It Matters and How It Can Be Accelerated.” Skoll Centre for Social Entrepreneurship, 2007. 
  • Osberg, Sally. “Framing the Change and Changing the Frame: A New Role for Social Entrepreneurs.” Innovations/Skoll World Forums. 2009.
  • Phillis, James A. Jr., Kriss Deiglmeier, and Dale T. Miller. “Rediscovering Social Innovation.” Stanford Social Innovation Review 6, no. 4 (2008):34-43.
  • Porter, Michael E., and Mark R. Kramer. “Creating Shared Value.” Harvard Business Review 89, nos.1-2 (Jan-Feb 2011): 62-77.
  • Seelos, Christian, and Johanna Mair. “Social Entrepreneurship: Creating New Business Models to Serve the Poor” Business Horizons 48, no. 3 (2005): 241-6.
  • Shore, Bill, Darrell Hammond, and Amy Celep. “When Good Is Not Good Enough.” Stanford Social Innovation Review 11, no.4 (Fall 2013): 40-47.